Ephesus location, About Ephesus, Ephesus Ephesus historical places

Ephesus Location

Ephesus is discovered in Selcuk, Izmir in western Turkey. Kusadasi is 19 km. far away from EphEphesus Guide,  About Ephesus,  Ephesus Location, Ephesus Information, Ephesus History, Ancient Ephesusesus and Pamucak beach is 5 km far away from Ephesus.

The original site of Ancient Ephesus was most likely established on the Aegean coast, on the shores of that sea which is today located 8 km. away from the archaeological excavations.

Over the centuries, in fact, the rubble brought on to the plain of the "Kucuk Menderes" has enlarged the alluvial plain surrounding the archaeological zone, leaving behind in actual fact the shores of the Aegean. In Roman times it was situated on the northern slopes of the hills Coressus and Pion and south of the Cayster (Kucuk Menderes) River, the silt from which has since formed a fertile plain but has caused the coastline to move ever farther west. In Roman times a sea channel was maintained with difficulty to a harbor well west of Pion. By late Byzantine times this channel had become useless, and the coast by the mid-20th century was three miles farther west.

Ephesus (Efes) is close to the town of Selcuk about an hour drive south of Izmir. Kusadasi is the nearest larger town, about 20km from Ephesus.

Ephesus was constructed on a river bend, that was eventually dredged into a full harbor near the mount of the Cayster River, on the western coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). Along the coastal plain between Smyrna to the north and Miletus to the south, the site is now about six miles from the Aegean Sea. The city shifted in five distinct locations over time, each within a small area. The Apostles Paul and John were familiar with the city that scholars have dubbed "Ephesus III" the largest (in area) of the five.
The areas where Ephesus located on as follows:
Ephesus I: Aya Suluk (St. John Area);
Ephesus II: Artemission area;
Ephesus III: Port of St. Paul: base of Mount Koressos;
Ephesus IV: north of Aya Suluk;
Ephesus V: Selcuk area.

Ephesus has been located at different places in different times:
Ephesus 1 was located on Ayasuluk or Selcuk Hill and inhabited by ancient Anatolians, Carians and Lelegians. At that time there was a cult of the Great Earth Mother which acted like a magnet attracting pilgrims and settlers even before the Ionian migration.
Ephesus Guide,  About Ephesus,  Ephesus Location, Ephesus Information, Ephesus History, Ancient Ephesus
Ephesus 2 was on the north slope of Mount Pion. Like other cities of the Aegean coast of Anatolia, Ephesus was ruled by Croesus of Lydia in the mid 6th century BC, before passing to the Persians after 546 BC. It joined the Delian League after the Persian wars and finally in 334 BC. it fell to Alexander the Great and his successors: Lysimachus and Seleucid rulers.
In the 4th century BC the harbour threatened to silt up the settlement and it was moved to a new location between Mount Pion and Bulbul Dagi by Lysimachus to form.

Ephesus 3. The remains of city walls from this period can still be seen at the foothill of Mount Coressos.
Later it was controlled by Pergamun, later passing in to Roman hands in 133 BC. During this period Ephesus became the capital of province of Asia Minor and the population reached a quarter of a million. After the 6th century AD due to the persistent silting up of the harbour and repeated raids by Arabs, the city changed it's location back to Ayasuluk Hill forming.

Ephesus 4.
Originally Ephesus was a harbour city but due to the Menderes alluviums, the site is now remoted from sea for about 5-6 kms.
Ephesus Guide,  About Ephesus,  Ephesus Location, Ephesus Information, Ephesus History, Ancient Ephesus
Ephesus has played significant roles during the date, in the early Christianity, as well. The prestige of Ephesus increased with the arrival of Saint Paul, for spreading the Christianity to the Ephesians worshipping to Artemission. St. Paul and the disciplines of Christianity were strictly refused by Ephesians, elderly. With the long tiring struggles of St. Paul, Christianity was accepted by the most of the population around Ephesus. St. Paul had also sent one of his most famous letters to the church in Ephesus. Additionally, St. Jean and Virgin Mary visited Ephesus and Virgin Mary settled down the Mount Coressos, located close to Ephesus, around the years of 431 AD.
Ephesus became a state of Seljukian in the year of 1090, for a time was held by Byzantine. In 1307 Seljukians controlled the city again. However, years later, the River Caystros was silted up, leaving the site far inland. Therefore, the city of Ephesus has lost it's significance, due to the development of the ports of Izmir and Kusadasi in sea-trade.
Excavation works in Ephesus started about 129 years ago and these will go on for many years together with restoration Works.

There are two entrances to the city today. For an easy tour, you may begin at the Magnesia Gate (Upper Gate) located on the road going to the House of Mary. Immediately to one side is the East Gymnasium at the foot of Panayir Mountain. The first monumental work one comes to is the Odeon with the Varius Baths beside it. Then you can see Bouleuterion, the first being the Congress of Councilors, which met here. In front of the Odeion was business council called the Basilica. Beside this was the Municipal Building, the Prytaneion with its massive columns. The Prytan functioned as the mayor of the city. His most important function was to keep alive the flame that had been burning in the building for centuries. Ephesus Guide,  About Ephesus,  Ephesus Location, Ephesus Information, Ephesus History, Ancient EphesusThis was done in the name of the local deity Hestia. The Artemis statues on display in the Ephesus Museum were found in the vault of the Prytaneion.

The area in front of the Odeion was the State Agora (Upper Agora). In the middle was a temple to the Egyptian goddess Isis. In 80 Laecanus Bassus erected AD a fountain in the southwest corner of the agora. From the agora one proceeds to the Square to Domitian where things like the Pollio and Domitian fountains, the Memmius Monument and the Heracles Gate are clustered together.

The famous Avenue of the Curates leads west from the Upper Agora. Things along this avenue include the
Trajan Fountain, the facade of the Temple to Hadrian and the Scholastic Baths. Immediately beside the Temple to Hadrian are the Bordello and the Latrines. On the left side of the avenue are the Terrace Houses. These houses are the most beautiful examples of peristyle houses and were as comfortable as houses are today. They all had frescoed walls and mosaic floors. Each had a heating system and bath. These houses are eminent in archeological literature and well worth seeing. At the end of the avenue is that most beautiful structure of Roman times, the Celsus Library. When City governor Celsus died in 106 AD, his son had the library built as his monument and grave. The sarcophagus is under the west wall of the library. One of the most interesting structures in the site is the Temple to Serapis, immediately behind the Library. Beside the Library is the Mazeus Mythridates Gate that leads in the Ephesus Guide, About Ephesus, Ephesus Location, Ephesus Information, Ephesus History, Ancient EphesusMarket Agora called also Lower Agora.
Agora is the starting point for the Marble Avenue. This is where St. Paul preached. At the end of the avenue is the world's largest theater, the Grand Theater, with a seating capacity of 24,000. Presently the theater is the site of months of various cultural and musical activities. At the corner of the theater is the Hellenistic Fountain, the smallest structure in Ephesus. The Theater Gymnasium across from it were built in the 2nd century AD.

The longest street in Ephesus is the Harbour Avenue (Arcadian Avenue) once lined with statues, and stretching from the theater to the presently silted-in harbor. The Four Apostles Monument was in the middle of the avenue. At the end of the avenue was the Harbor Gymnasium and Baths next to the ancient harbor. In the complex there stands the Church of Mary, site of the General Church Council of 431 AD.
At the city's northernmost point is the Vedius Gymnasium with Byzantine walls beside it. There is also a stadium built in the time of the Emperor Nero.